A-national Corporate Income Tax Rate at a Glance




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Corporate Taxation in Turkey


A-National Corporate Income Tax Rate at a Glance

Corporate Income Tax Rate (%) 20
Capital Gains Tax Rate (%) 20 (a)
Branch Tax Rate (%) 20
Withholding Tax (%)
Dividends 15 (b)
Interest (a)
From Repurchase (REPO) Agreements 15 (c)(d)
From Turkish Government Bonds and
Bills and Private Sector Bonds 0/10 (e)

15 (c)(e)

From Deposit Accounts 15 (c)(f)
From Loans Granted by Foreign Financial
Institutions 0 (g)
From Loans Granted by
Other Foreign Entities 10 (g)
Royalties from Patents, Know-how, etc. 20 (h)
Professional Fees
Petroleum-Exploration Activities 5 (h)(i)
Other Activities 20 (h)(j)
Progress Billings on Long-Term Construction
and Repair Contracts 3 (h)(j)
Payments on Financial Leases 1 (h)
Real Estate Rental Payments 20 (c)
Branch Remittance Tax 15
Net Operating Losses (Years)
Carryback 0
Carryforward 5

(a) Capital gains and interest income derived by non-resident companies that do not have a permanent establishment or a permanent representative in Turkey from securities or other investment instruments (excluding deposits and overnight agreements) traded in the Turkish financial market are not subject to withholding tax.

(b) This withholding tax is imposed on dividends distributed to nonresident companies (except for dividends paid to Turkish permanent establishments or permanent representatives of nonresident companies) and to resident and nonresident individuals. Nonresidents that do not have a permanent establishment or a permanent representative in Turkey are not subject to withholding tax on profits derived by mutual funds regardless of whether the profits are distributed.

(c) This withholding tax applies to resident and nonresident companies and individuals.

(d) This withholding tax applies if the repurchase agreement is based on a state bond or treasury bill.

(e) The 0% rate applies to nonresident entities and individuals. The 10% rate applies to residents for bonds and bills issued after 1 January 2006.

(f) A withholding tax rate of 15% applies to deposit interest, regardless of the maturity and regardless of whether the deposits are denominated in Turkish lira or foreign currency.

(g) The principal of loans that are denominated in foreign exchange and remitted to Turkish residents (excluding banks and other financial institutions) by foreign financial institutions and that have an average maturity of less than one year are subject to a 3% contribution to the Resource Utilization Support Fund (RUSF).

(h) This withholding tax applies to nonresident companies.

(i) Optionally, this withholding tax is a final tax imposed on these payments. Alternatively, net income may be subject to corporation tax at a rate of 20% (for 2007).

(j) This withholding tax is credited against the final tax liability.


B- Outline of Turkish Corporate Tax System

  • Taxable Income

Companies whose legal or business headquarters are located in Turkey or whose operations are centered and managed in Turkey are subject to corporation tax on their worldwide income.

Taxable income of limited liability taxpayers is comprised of professional fees obtained in Turkey, profits from commercial, agricultural and industrial enterprises in Turkey, income arising from rental of real estate, rights and movable property in Turkey, income obtained in Turkey from various types of securities and other income and revenue obtained in Turkey.

  • Participation Exemption

The Turkish tax law provides a participation exemption for dividends derived by Turkish companies from foreign participations. Dividends and income qualifying for the participation exemption are fully exempt from corporation tax.

To qualify for the participation exemption for dividends derived from foreign participations, the following conditions must be satisfied.


• The Turkish company must own at least 10% of the shares of the foreign company for an uninterrupted period of at least one year as of the date of receiving the dividend;

• The foreign company must be in the nature of a limited or joint stock company,

• The foreign company must be subject to corporate tax at an effective rate of at least 15% (for corporations whose principal activities is the procurement of finance and insurance, the rate must be at least the rate of corporation tax in Turkey, which is 20% for 2007),

The effective corporate tax is determined with the following formula:

Effective corporate tax rate= Corporate Tax / (Distributable Income + Corporate Tax)


The participation exemption also applies to income derived from permanent establishments (PEs) and permanent representative resident abroad if the following conditions are met:


• The PEs and permanent representatives are subject to corporate tax at an effective rate of at least 15% in the country where the PE is located (for PEs whose principal activities are the procurement of finance (including financial leasing) or investment in marketable securities and insurance, the rate must be at least the rate of corporation tax in Turkey, which is 20% for 2007); and

• Income derived from the foreign company must be transferred to Turkey by the due date of filing of the annual corporate tax return (April 25).


The context of the participation exemption has been extended for companies that have been established in foreign countries with the main purpose of construction, repair, assembly and technical services. If, under the laws of a foreign country, the establishment of a corporation is necessary to undertake these activities, dividends repatriated by foreign subsidiary to the Turkish parent company qualify for the participation exemption, regardless of whether the conditions described above for the participation exemption are satisfied.

  • International Holding Regime

International holding companies may benefit from the paticipation exemption with respect to devidends derived from foreign participations if they satisfy the conditions applicable to other entities.

They also may benefit from participation exemption with respect to capital gains if foreign participations account for at least 75% of he noncash assets of the international holding company has held a shareholding of 10% or more in the foreign company at least two years.

Dividends distributed by international holding companies to nonresidents companies out of profits derived from their foreign participations are subject to a withholding tax rate equal to one-half of the general withholding tax rate on dividends. As a result, the withholding tax rate is 7,5%.

  • Capital Gains

Capital gains derived by all companies, including branches of foreign companies, are subject to corporation tax. Capital gains derived from sales of depreciable fixed assets are not taxable to the extent the gains are reinvested in new fixed assets. If the gains is not used to finance the purchase of similar assets in the following three years, it is included in taxable income. Capital gains derived from sales of resident companies’ shares by nonresident companies without a permanent establishment in Turkey are subject to corporation tax.

  • Transfer Pricing Rules

The traditional transfer pricing methods recommended in OECD model transfer pricing guidelines are acceptable. The transfer pricing rules apply to both domestic and foreign related party transaction. Commercial transactions conducted by persons resident in low-tax jurisdictions are considered to be related part transactions.

  • Thin Capitalization

Under the thin-capitalization rule, a “related party” is a person holding directly or indirectly, at least 10% of the shares or voting rights of the other party.

Borrowings from related parties that exceed a debt-to-equity ratio of 3:1 and borrowings from related parties that are banks or financial institutions that exceed a debt-to-equity ratio of 6:1 are considered to be disguised capital.



  • Tax year

Companies file tax returns based on their financial accounting year. Tax returns must be submitted to relevant tax office by the 25th day of the 4th month and the corporation tax due must be paid by the end of 4th month after the end of the accounting period.

  • Foreign Tax Credit

Resident companies that have a direct or indirect participation in shares or voting rights of 25% or more in foreign subsidiaries can claim a tax credit for the corporate or income tax paid by foreign subsidiaries in their jurisdictions on profits out of which dividend distributions were paid to the resident companies.

  • Controlled foreign companies (CFC)

CFC regulations are applicable when resident individuals and corporate taxpayers jointly or severally have minimum 50% direct or indirect participation to the shares, dividend rights or voting rights in a foreign company that meets all of the following conditions:

  • 25 percent or more of the foreign company’s income should be of passive nature (portfolio investment). If the business activities of the company are not commensurate with the capital, organization or the work force of the company, income derived from commercial, agricultural or independent personal services may be regarded as passive nature,

  • the foreign company should be subject to corporate taxation at a rate of less than 10 percent;

  • the gross revenue of the foreign company should exceed NTL 100,000 (approximately US $ 75,000)


If the foreign corporation falls within the context of Turkish CFC measures, Turkish resident taxpayer declare corporate income of the foreign company attributable to them. In the event of a dividend distribution by the foreign company, the recipient of the dividend is taxed only to the extent that the amount has not been taxed in accordance with the CFC rules.


C- Other Significant Taxes

  • Value-added tax

Value-added tax is imposed on goods delivered and services rendered including imported goods and services, communication, conveyances by pipeline and certain leases. Exports are excluded. The general tax rate is 18%, other rates are 1% and8%.

  • Local withholding taxes

It is imposed on amounts paid to non-resident corporations for advertising, building construction, entertainment and petroleum products. The rates are various.

  • Banking and insurance transaction tax

It is imposed on all types of payments received by banking and insurance companies with respect to all types of transactions except for financial leasing transactions. The rates are between 1% and 5%.

  • Special consumption tax

It is imposed on the importation and the initial acquisition of certain goods. The examples of the rates are as follows: cars 10% to 84%, alcoholic beverages 63.3% to 275.6%, luxury goods 6.7% to 20%, and tobacco 58%.


D- Treaty Withholding Tax Rates at a Glance

The following are the maximum withholding rates for dividends, interest and royalties, provided under Turkey’s double tax treaties.


Dividends Interest Royalties
% % %

Albania 5/15 (a) 10 10
Algeria 12 10 10
Austria 25/35 (b) 15 10
Azerbaijan 12 10 10
Bangladesh 10 10 10
Belarus 10/15 (c) 10 10
Belgium 15/20 (d) 15 10
Bulgaria 10/15 (c) 10 10
China 10 10 10
Croatia 10 10 10
Czech Republic 10 10 10
Denmark 15/20 (e) 15 10
Egypt 5/15 (a) 10 10
Estonia 10 10 5/10 (f)
Finland 15/20 (e) 15 10
France 15/20 (g) 15 10
Germany 15/20 (g) 15 10
Greece 15 12 10
Hungary 10/15 (c) 10 10
India 15 10/15 (h) 15
Indonesia 10/15 (c) 10 10
Iran 15/20 (e) 10
Israel 10 10 10
Italy 15 15 10
Japan 10/15 (c) 10/15 (i) 10
Jordan 10/15 (c) 10 12
Kazakhstan 10 10 10
Korea 15/20 (e) 10/15 (j) 10
Kuwait 10 10 10
Kyrgyzstan 10 10 10
Latvia 10 10 5/10 (f)

Lebanon 7/10 (f) 10 10
Lithuania 10 10 5/10 (f)
Luxembourg 10/20 (l) 10/15 (m) 10
Macedonia 5/10 (n) 10 10
Malaysia 10/15 (c) 15 10
Moldova 10/15 (c) 10 10
Mongolia 10 10 10

Morocco 10/15 (o) 10 10
Netherlands 5/10 (p) 10/15 (m) 10
Northern Cyprus 15/20 (e) 10 10
Norway 25/30 (q) 15 10
Pakistan 10/15 (c) 10 10
Poland 10/15 (c) 10 10
Romania 15 10 10
Russian Federation 10 10 10
Singapore 10/15 (c) 7.5/10 (r) 10
Slovak Republic 5/10 (n) 10 10
Slovenia 10 10 10
Spain 5/15 (s) 10/15 (t) 10
Sudan 10 10 10
Sweden 15/20 (e) 15 10
Syria 10 10 10/15 (u)
Tajikistan 10 10 10
Thailand 10/15 (c) 10/15 (v) 15
Tunisia 12/15 (w) 10 10
Turkmenistan 10 10 10
Ukraine 10/15 (c) 10 10
United Arab
Emirates 5/10/12 (x) 10 10
United Kingdom 15/20 (e) 15 10
United States 15/20 (g) 10/15 (y) 5/10 (f)
Uzbekistan 10 10 10
Nontreaty countries 15 0/10/15 (z) 15 (z)


(a) The 5% rate applies if the recipient owns more than 25% of the payer of the dividends. The 15% rate applies to other dividends.

(b) The 25% rate applies if the recipient owns more than 25% of the payer of the dividends. The 35% rate applies to other dividends.

(c) The 10% rate applies if the recipient owns more than 25% of the payer of the dividends. The 15% rate applies to other dividends.

(d) The 15% rate applies if the recipient owns more than 10% of the payer of the dividends. The 20% rate applies to other dividends.

(e) The 15% rate applies if the recipient owns more than 25% of the payer of the dividends. The 20% rate applies to other dividends.

(f) The 5% rate applies to royalties paid for the use of industrial, commercial or scientific equipment. The 10% rate applies to other royalties.

(g) The 15% rate applies if the recipient owns more than 10% of the payer of the dividends. The 20% rate applies to other dividends.

(h) The 10% rate applies to interest on loans granted by banks and financial institutions. The 15% rate applies to other interest payments.

(i) The 10% rate applies to interest on loans granted by financial institutions. The 15% rate applies to other interest payments.

(j) The 10% rate applies to interest paid with respect to a loan or other debt claim with a term exceeding two years. The 15% rate applies to other interest payments.

(k) The 7% rate applies if the recipient (beneficial owner) owns more than 25% of the payer of the dividends. The 10% rate applies to other dividends.

(l) The 10% rate applies if the recipient owns more than 25% of the payer of the dividends. The 20% rate applies to other dividends.

(m) The 10% rate applies to interest on loans with a term exceeding two years. The 15% rate applies to other interest payments.

(n) The 5% rate applies if the recipient owns more than 25% of the payer of the dividends. The 10% rate applies to other dividends.

(o) The 10% rate applies if the beneficial owner owns more than 15% of the payer of the dividends. The 15% rate applies to other dividends.

(p) The 5% rate applies to dividends distributed by Dutch companies. The 10% rate applies to dividends distributed by Turkish companies.

(q) The 25% rate applies if the recipient owns more than 25% of the payer of the dividends. The 30% rate applies to other dividends.

(r) The 7.5% rate applies to interest on loans paid by financial institutions. The 10% rate applies to other interest payments.

(s) The 5% rate applies to dividends to the extent they are paid out of profits that have been subject to tax as specified in the tax treaty and if the recipient owns more than 25% of the payer of the dividends. The 15% rate applies to other dividends.

(t) The 10% rate applies to interest on loans granted by banks. The 15% rate applies to other interest payments.

(u) The 10% applies to royalties paid for the use of, or the right to use, copyrights of literary, artistic or scientific works, including cinematographic films and recordings for radio and television. The 15% rate applies to royalties paid for patents, trademarks, designs or models, plans, secret formulas or processes, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.

(v) The 10% rate applies to interest on loans granted by banks, financial institutions and insurance companies. The 15% rate applies to other interest payments.

(w) The 12% rate applies if the recipient owns more than 25% of the payer of the dividends. The 15% rate applies to other dividends.

(x) The 5% applies if the recipient of the dividend is the government, a public institution which is wholly owned by the government or a political subdivision or local authorities of the other Contracting State. The 10% rate applies if the recipient owns more than 25% of the payer of the dividends. The 12% rate applies to other dividends.

(y) The 10% rate applies to interest derived from loans granted by financial institutions, such as banks, savings institutions or insurance companies. The 15% rate applies to other interest payments.

(z) See Section A.




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